Guidelines to the Authors

Indian Journal of Extension Education

Indian Journal of Extension Education is the Official publication of Indian Society of Extension Education (ISEE). It publishes original research papers in the field of extension education and allied fields.

Submission of manuscript: Paper for publication should be submitted online on Those who have submitted their papers through are required to submit through . The official email of the chief editor of the society is [email protected] . Before submission of paper, it is strongly advised that it may be checked and edited by your coauthor(s), professional colleagues for its technical contents including grammatical and spelling correctness. The length of the manuscript should not exceed 12 typed pages (double space).

Submission of final manuscript: The submitted paper will be evaluated by the editorial members and referees for their suitability. The paper will be sent back to the author to carry out the changes or modifications as suggested by the referees and editorial member. Final manuscript has to be uploaded only through electronic form (as an attachment) through with an email to the following e-mail address: [email protected].

Any research article should be between 3000-5000 words; in between 2000-3000 words it should be recommended for research notes only. Below 2000 words reject straightway. For Research Tool it is advisable to be in between 2500-3000 words only.

The manuscript should be arranged as follows: Title, running title, abstract, keyword, introduction, methodology, results and discussion, conclusion and references.

Title Page: The names, current affiliation, complete address (place where work was conducted) including e-mail address of author(s), Present address(es) of author(s) if applicable; Complete correspondence address including email address to which the proofs should be sent (these should be given as footnote on first page). Do not use abbreviation or acronyms for designation of job, position and institution name. The title must be centered (16 point bold). The first letter of the every word of the title should be in upper case (Capital letter). All other letter should be in lower case (small letters). Example: Socio economic Impact of Self Help Groups.

Abstract: An abstract of about 150 to 200 words written in complete sentences. It should contain a very brief account of the materials, methods, results, discussion and conclusion, so that the reader need not refer to the whole article except for details. It should not have references to literature, illustrations and tables. The abstract should summarize pertinent results in a brief but understandable form. The abstract should start with a clear statement of the objectives of the experiment and must conclude with one or two sentences that highlight important conclusions.

Keywords: Provide a list of 5 to 8 keywords (indexing terms) that best describe the nature of the research after the abstract. The first letter of each keyword should be in upper case or capital letter. As major words in the title are not used in the subject index, appropriate words from the title (or synonyms) should be listed as key words.

The ‘INTRODUCTION’ part should be brief and limited to the statement of the importance of the study, problem or the aim of the experiment. It should briefly justify the research and specify the hypotheses to be tested. The review of literature should be pertinent to the problem. Objective of the study should be discussed in view of latest references. No trade name should be used and Industrial products should be referred to by their chemical names (give ingredients in parentheses) at first mention. In the absence of a common name, use the full name or a defined abbreviation, in preference to a trade name. Introduction should be between 450 to 500 words.

The’ METHODOLOGY’ should contain relevant details including experimental design and the techniques employed. Where the methods are well known, the citation of a standard work is sufficient. All modifications of procedures must be explained. Experimental materials and statistical models should be described clearly and fully. Calculations and the validity of deductions made from them should be checked and validated. Units of measurement, symbols and standard abbreviations should conform to international standards. Metric measurements are preferred, and dosages should be expressed entirely in metric units (SI units). Give the meaning of all symbols immediately after the equation in which they are first used. METHODOLOGY should be between 300 to 450 words. There must not be table and figures in methodology and subheadings be avoided as far as possible.

The RESULTS AND DISCUSSION separately  (1500-2500 words) should be precise enough and well supported by relevant researches. The results need to be discussed instead of presenting the tabular data in text. There must not be sub headings in Discussion; however, paragraphs may be there to discuss agendas separately. The Discussion should be 500-600 words only. Please check that the thesis style of reporting results be avoided. Check it should be in the past tense. Results should be presented in tabular form and graphs when feasible but not both. The colour figures and plates are printed when information would be lost if reproduced in black and white. Mean result with the relevant standard errors should be presented rather than detailed data. The data should be so arranged that the tables would fit in the normal layout of the page. Self-explanatory tables should be typed on separate sheets and carry appropriate titles. The tabular matter should not exceed 20% of the text. Any abbreviation used in a table must be defined in that table. All tables should be cited in the text. If an explanation is necessary, use an abbreviation in the body of the table (e.g. ND) and explain clearly in footnotes what the abbreviation means. References to footnotes in a table are specified by superscript numbers, independently for each table. Superscript letters are used to designate statistical significance. Use a lower case p to indicate probability values (i.e. p<0.05). In general, use numerals, when two numbers appear adjacent to each other, spell out the first (i.e. three plants were selected rather than 3 plants were selected). In a series using some numbers less than 10 and some more than 10 use numerals for all (i.e. 2 splits, 6 plants were selected). Do not begin a sentence with a numeral. Spell it out or rearrange the sentence. Abbreviate the terms hour (h), minute (min) and second (sec) when used with a number in the text but spell them out when they are used alone. Do not use a hyphen to indicate inclusiveness (e.g. use 12 to 14 yr or wk 3 and 4 not 12-14 mg or wk 3-4). Use Arabic numerals with abbreviated units of measure: 2 g, 5 d, $4.00, 3% and numerical designations in the text: exp 1, group 3, etc. Figures (histogram/pie chart/ other type of charts) should be given in editable rich text material with the backup data file. The image of the figure or jpg/jpeg is not allowed.The paper should always be written in third person form (Avoid I / We / Research Team / Project Team etc.).There is always a different style for paper writing and thesis writing, try to be precise enough without compromising the quality. Avoid too many paragraphs; one concept must be dealt at one place and time in one paragraph. Avoid presenting the same data in text, table, and figures in verbatim. Avoid making too many tables just for the number sake, also avoid giving socio personal profile till it is utmost necessary and has some bearing on the other part of the research (most times it is not so).

The DISCUSSION should relate to the limitations or advantage of the author’s experiments in comparison with the work of others.

The ‘CONCLUSION’ section should not be of more than one paragraph after the discussion and explain in general terms the implications of findings of this research. Abbreviations, acronyms, or citations should not be used here.

REFERENCES lists should be typed in alphabetical order. The reference list should be first sorted alphabetically by author(s) and secondly chronologically. A recent issue of the journal should be consulted for the methods of citation of REFERENCES in the text as well as at the end of the article.

Kindly ensure a minimum of three references from previous issues of IJEE from epubs only· There must be at least 15 references from the related research. It is appreciable if the references are from Social Science/ Extension Education/ Communication/ Entrepreneurship/ Management/ Education related journals. References should not be abbreviated especially the journal name (as per IJEE style). Check capitalization Vs sentence case properly. In references, the ‘&’ should be used instead of ‘and’ before the last author name, whereas in the text it should be ‘and’. The word ‘et al’ must not be in italics in the text. The reference, in general, should not be older than 15 years and should be from published sources only. Avoid unpublished thesis (older than five years) references. Wherever possible insist on providing the URL of the reference. Unauthenticated references should lead to the rejection of the manuscript.

Indian Journal of Extension Education follows common APA Style references and citations in the text. For more information on references and reference examples, see Chapters 8, 9 and 10 of the Publication Manual as well as the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.). Also, see the Reference Examples pages on the APA Style website. Few examples are of reference section as well as text citations are given below:

Reference Section

Including minimum of three references from previous issues of IJEE is desirable· There must be at least 15 references from the related researches. It is appreciable if the references are from Social Science/ Extension Education/ Communication/ Entrepreneurship/ Management/ Education related journals. The reference, in general, should not be older than 15 years and should be from published sources only. Avoid unpublished thesis (older than five years) references. Wherever possible provide the URL of the reference. Unauthenticated references will lead to rejection of article
Indian Journal of Extension Education follows common APA Style references and citation in text. Journal name should never be abbreviated. For more information on references and reference examples, see Chapters 8, 9 and 10 of the Publication Manual as well as the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.). Also see the Reference Examples pages on the APA Style website. Few examples are of reference section as well as text citation are given below:

a) Journal Articles

Lachner, A., Backfisch, I., Hoogerheide, V., van Gog, T., & Renkl, A. (2020). Timing matters! Explaining between study phases enhances students’ learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(4), 841–853.

b) Online Magazine Article

Gander, K. (2020, April 29). COVID-19 vaccine being developed in Australia raises antibodies to neutralize virus in pre-clinical tests. Newsweek.

c) Print Magazine Article

Nicholl, K. (2020, May). A royal spark. Vanity Fair, 62(5), 56–65, 100.

e) Print Newspaper Article

Reynolds, G. (2019, April 9). Different strokes for athletic hearts. The New York Times,D4.

f) Blog Post

Rutledge, P. (2019, March 11). The upside of social media. The Media Psychology Blog.

g) Authored Book

Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., & Pineau, T. R. (2018). Mindful sport performance enhancement: Mental training for athletes and coaches. American Psychological Association.

h) Edited Book Chapter

Zeleke, W. A., Hughes, T. L., & Drozda, N. (2020). Home–school collaboration to promote mind–body health. In C. Maykel & M. A. Bray (Eds.), Promoting mind–body health in schools: Interventions for mental health professionals (pp. 11–26). American Psychological Association.

i) Online Dictionary Entry

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Internet addiction. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved April 24, 2020, from

j) Report by a Group Author

World Health Organization. (2014). Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition. eng.pdf?ua=1

k) Report by Individual Authors

Winthrop, R., Ziegler, L., Handa, R., & Fakoya, F. (2019). How playful learning can help leapfrog progress in education., Center for Universal Education at Brookings.

l) Press Release

American Psychological Association. (2020, March 2). APA reaffirms psychologists’ role in combating climate change [Press release].

m) Conference Session

Davidson, R. J. (2019, August 8–11). Well-being is a skill [Conference session]. APA 2019 Convention, Chicago,IL, United States. Program_190708.pdf

n) Dissertation From a Database (Section 10.6)

Horvath-Plyman, M. (2018). Social media and the college student journey: An examination of how social media use impacts social capital and affects college choice, access, and transition (Publication No. 10937367) [Doctoral dissertation, New York University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

o) Preprint Article (Section 10.6)

Latimier, A., Peyre, H., & Ramus, F. (2020). A meta-analytic review of the benefit of spacing out retrieval practice episodes on retention. PsyArXiv.

p) Data Set

O’Donohue, W. (2017). Content analysis of undergraduate psychology textbooks (ICPSR 21600; Version V1) [Data set]. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.

q) Film or Video

Doctor, P., & Del Carmen, R. (Directors). (2015). Inside out [Film]. Walt Disney Pictures; Pixar Animation Studios.

r) TV Series Episode

Dippold, K. (Writer), & Trim, M. (Director). (2011, April 14). Fancy party (Season 3, Episode 9) [TV series episode]. In G. Daniels, H. Klein, D. Miner, & M. Schur (Executive Producers), Parks and recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions; Fremulon; 3 Arts Entertainment; Universal Media Studios.

s) Webinar

Kamin, H. S., Lee, C. L., & McAdoo, T. L. (2020). Creating references using seventh edition APA Style [Webinar]. American Psychological Association.

t) YouTube Video

Above The Noise. (2017, October 18). Can procrastination be a good thing? [Video]. YouTube.

u) Song or Track

Nirvana. (1991). Smells like teen spirit [Song]. On Nevermind. DGC.

v) Radio Broadcast

Hersher, R. (2020, March 19). Spring starts today all over America, which is weird [Radio broadcast]. NPR. america-which-is-weird3

Podcast Episode (Section 10.13)

Santos, L. (Host). (n.d.). Psychopaths and superheroes (No. 1) [Audio podcast episode]. In The happiness lab with Dr. Laurie Santos. Pushkin Industries.

Infographic (Section 10.14)

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Data sharing [Infographic].

PowerPoint From a Classroom Website (Section 10.14)

Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU.


Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2020, April 7). It’s World Health Day, and we owe a profound debt of gratitude to all our medical professionals. They’re still giving [Tweet]. Twitter. BarackObama/status/1247555328365023238

Open Educational Resource

Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain. OER Commons. Retrieved January 7, 2020, from


Chandler, N. (2020, April 9). What’s the difference between Sasquatch and Bigfoot? howstuffworks.

Webpage on a News Website

Machado, J., & Turner, K. (2020, March 7). The future of feminism. Vox. identities/2020/3/7/21163193/international-womens-day-2020

Webpage With a Retrieval Date

Center for Systems Science and Engineering. (2020, May 6). COVID-19 dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). Johns Hopkins University & Medicine, Coronavirus Resource Center. Retrieved May 6, 2020, from

Citations in text

Layout Formats

General: Use Times New Roman font of size 12 point. The paragraph must be justified and separated from one another with a single space. Line spacing must be ‘Double’.

Page layout: Format your article so that it can be printed on A4 size paper with a provision of left right and top margin of 2.5 cm. The bottom margin must be 4 cm.

Major heading: All major heading (ABSTRACT, KEYWORDS, INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND REFERENCES) should be in upper case or capital letters (14 point bold) ‘centre aligned’.

Sub-headings: Use font size of 12 point bold. To be typed on a separate line and ‘left aligned’ first letter of the first word to be in upper case (capital letter) and all other letters in lower case (small letter) e.g. Socio-economic and psychological characteristics.

Sub-sub headings: Use font size of 10 point bold, in italics and ‘left aligned’. To be typed in a separate line with use with left margin. The first letter of first word to be in upper case (capital letter) and all other letters in lower case (small letters)

Table formats: Tables have to be placed in the appropriate place in the text. They should be prepared using the Table facility of Microsoft Word. Tables must have a Table caption on the top of the Table. The first letter of the first word of the caption should be in upper case (capital letters) and all other letters in lower case (small letters). A research paper should not have more than seven Tables.

Graphic formats: Only computer generated charts of figures (as a part of Microsoft word or GIF of JPEG files) or photographs relevant to the contents of the paper will be accepted.

Acronomys: You have to spell out the acronym for its first occurrence followed by the acronym within parenthesis. Example: Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) or Training and visit (T & V).

Plagiarism: Authors must obtain permission to reproduce any copyright material, and include an acknowledgement of the source in their article. They should be aware that the unreferenced use of the published and unpublished ideas, writing or illustrations of others, or submission of a complete paper under a new authorship in a different or the same language, is plagiarism.

Other policies: Articles forwarded to the editor for publication are understood to be offered to the Indian Journal of Extension Education exclusively and the copyrights automatically stand transferred to Indian Society of Extension Education. It is also understood that the authors have obtained the approval of their department, faculty or institute in cases where such permission is necessary. The Editorial Board takes no responsibility for facts or opinions expressed in the Journal, which rests entirely with the authors thereof. Proof-correction should be in Track Change mode. All queries marked in the article should be answered. Proofs are supplied for a check-up of the correctness of type setting and facts. The proofs should be returned within 3 days. The alternation in authors name is not permitted at any later stage after the article is submitted to the Indian Journal of Extension Education.Article certificate:The article certificate duly signed by all the authors should be mailed in original to Chief Editor ISEE. In absence of article certificate it will not be published.